Jakarta (Pemilu 2019) - W Mahardi, E Nezon, Y Prasenja and Prayogi
Climate change giving impact to mangroves life. Global climate change causes specifically changes in temperature, CO2 , precipitation, hurricanes and storm, and sea level, combined with anthropogenic threats will threaten the resilience of mangroves [4 ]. Since 1880, the Earth has warmed 0.6-0.8° C and it is projected to warm 2-6° C by 2100 due to human activity, and atmospheric CO2 has increased from 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the year 1880 to nearly 370 ppmv in the year 2000 [2 ]. For this condition mangrove will impact, so it’s need strategy building resilience into mangrove conservation plans requires. Beside that, mangroves have capability to carbon sequesting.
Vegetasi mangroves, based on research are able to capture carbon ( known as the " Blue Carbon ") 55% more effective than the carboncaptured byland forests ( known as " Green Carbon "). Carboncaptured by ecosystems is stored in the form of sedimentaround the mangroves . Carbon is locked in sediments that are not only in the range oftens or hundreds of years , but can be in the range of thousands of years. Each year , approximately 235-450 Tg ( Teragram = 106 tons ) of blue carbon sinks and captured by the mangrove and estuary. This amount is close to half of theworld's carbon emissions resulting from the transport sector ( known as the Black/brown carbon) that ranging1000 Tg C/year . So mangrove are the mosteffectivecarbonsinkerson the planet [5 ].
On the other side, degradation of the mangrove ecosystem along the northern coastline of Java Island is very serious, more than 70% of the mangroves area in a severely damaged condition, 4,826 ha out of a total mangrove area of 6,798 ha according to statistic of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) in 2011. This condition has been caused by land use conversion, cutting of mangroves trees for milkfish/shrimp ponds, industrialization, oil pollution, and charcoal production. As one of the efforts to restore mangroves which has been degraded and contributing to climate change mitigation, the Directorate of Coastal and Marine Affairs of MMAF since 2000 until 2011 has been planted more than 2.3 million mangrove seedling or around 482 ha.
II. Materials and method
The methodology for conducting this this study included:
1. Compile and data analysis of planting mangrove since year of 2000
2. Identify more effectiveness from activity in mangrove restoration and public awareness
3. Measure carbon sequesting
III. Results and Discussion
In implemented of the Programme, besides replanting mangroves, there were other activities like environmental education, a student competition in environment matters and climate change issues, training in alternative income generation and mangrove rehabilitation, integrated coastal management training. All activities important to recovery of environmental degrade and build capacity building for local community to aware with the environmental conservation. With the strong capacity, the local community can maintains of ecosystem preservation and effort to climate change mitigation also.
As we know mangroves can play a significant role in building resilience against climate change and natural disasters in the coastal zone by providing coastal communities with increase food and income security, as well as an-improved environment and physical protection against erosion, storms and other extreme climate events. Mangrove are capable of sequesting very high quantities of carbon compared to other forest types. Further studies show that the ecological and economic value of mangroves as a carbon sink, and the potential to benefit mangrove dependent communities through the emerging forest carbon mechanism.
Capability mangroves to absorb carbon are 176.8 mg/ha [3 ]. Based on the capacity, it can predict carbon sink of mangroves which has been planted in north of Java. Carbon stock can account with land cover method multiplied by index values of carbon. Index refers to IPCC convention. The other method, carbon stock measure based on estimation of a wide of mangrove which has been planted and prediction in five or ten years after.
The total biomass of mangrove with NDVI value in Java use formula Y = 672,22e10,335x , where Y is carbon bio-mass (kg/ha) and x are NDVI value (mangrove = ± 0,65). And to measure carbon sink on the soil surface are Z = 0.46 x Y, Z are total carbon can absorb by mangrove. Reference to those formula, the total of carbon sink in last 7 years are 12,678 kg of carbon. It is prove mangrove restoration not only use to protection against erosion, alternative solution in climate change mitigation.
This data can effort to success Indonesia government program to reduce carbon in the air. As a commitment Indonesia government to decrease of green house gas, speech of Indonesia President giving statement in Conference of Climate Change in Copenhagen Denmark that mention Indonesia will commitment to reduce green house effect amount 26% until 2020 and more over 41% if International community aid Indonesia. Considering the result of research that mentions mangrove capability to absorb carbon more effective than primary forest . (Pemilu2019)
Key words: mangroves, restoration, climate change, mitigation, Indonesia
1. Directorat of Coastal and Ocean Affairs. 2011. Identification for Degradation and Rehabilitation Planning on the North of Java. Jakarta: Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.
2. Houghton, J., Y, Ding, D. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. Johnson (eds.). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp.
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4. McLeod, E., and Salm, R. V. 2006. Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources / The Nature Conservancy, Gland, Switzerland.
5. Nellemann, C., Corcoran, E., Duarte, C. M., Valdés, L., DeYoung, C., Fonseca, L., Grimsditch, G. (Eds). 2009. Blue Carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, www.grida.no