Land-use analysis of eco fishery tourism using a low-cost drone, the case of Lumpur Island, Sidoarjo District

  1. Introduction

The Sidoarjo Lumpur Island is a new land formed from dredge material disposal of Porong River estuary due to high sedimentation. Lumpur Island has unique characteristics, considering the dredged sediment is that originated from the Sidoarjo mud volcano which may contain dangerous chemicals.

Since 2010, Lumpur Island has been utilized as both additional land for mangrove ecosystem area at Porong river estuary and as a fishery cultivation area with the wanamina (sylvofishery) system. Marine Research and Observation Agency, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (BPOL) study results had showed that Avicennia (api-api) and Rhizophora (mangrove) are able to grow well as media on the Sidoarjo mud. It had been supported by laboratory analysis of the mud content, water quality conditions and marine biota, in which no the values of the analyzed parameters are at hazardous levels for both coastal environments and Porong river estuary [1].

The mangrove ecosystem is that of any main coastal and small islands which play a large role in the availability of fish resources in those areas and surrounding [2]. The mangrove ecosystem has a dual function and as an important link in maintaining the balance of biological cycle in a water system. The ecological function of mangroves is provider of nutrients for aquatic biota, spawning and care sites of various kinds of biota [3]. Physically, its function either to resist erosion, hurricanes and tsunamis, also as waste and sea water intrusion absorber. Mangrove ecosystems function economically as providers of wood and its leaves as raw materials for medicines, and others [4]. The commercial functions of mangroves are as aquaculture (such as wanamina ponds), recreational (tourism) and timber producers and as salt pools [5].

 Location of Sidoarjo Lumpur Island is bordered by Surabaya and Gresik regencies in the northern, Madura Strait in the eastern, Pasuruan regency in the southern, and Mojokerto regency in the western. Lumpur Island close to Tlocor hamlet, Kedung Pandan village, Jabon district, Sidoarjo regency. As one of the central economic and industrial growth areas of East Java, Sidoarjo regency continues to experience rapid growth. Some of the major indications of rapid economic development in the region are the increasing industrial and residential areas numbers [6]. The increasing of industries and settlements numbers it requires the opening of new lands. In order to meet these needs, mangrove forest areas on the coast began to be converted into residential and industrial areas.

Lumpur Island with an area of ± 94 Ha potentially, it has biological resources contained in its mangrove ecosystem. Utilization of mangrove ecosystem as wanamina area is one of the development efforts that have been done by the government, in order to avoid land conversion into industrial estate and infrastructure development, considering the location close to settlement and in the suburbs.

According to Lawley, et al. [7], helpfully, remote sensing can calculate area, species abundance and diversity changes of vegetation cover, as well as monitoring of vegetation conditions and changes, especially on mangroves in this study. The analysis used for vegetation on remote sensing used different characteristic extraction techniques, plant indices and spectral classification [7].

The results of research conducted by Hidayah and Wijayanto [6] had showed that from Landsat analysis of 2002 and 2010 images, mangrove ecosystem in Sidoarjo regency experienced a reduction from total area of 1,236.42 ha to be 1,203.35 ha. The area which had that experienced the largest decrease of mangrove ecosystem in Sidoarjo Regency is Jabon district, i.e. 55.94 ha [6]. The damage of mangrove ecosystem in Sidoarjo regency is mostly caused by illegal logging activity and the conversion of mangrove ecosystem into ponds by local community.

Changes of land use on small islands trend to grow along coastline lines, ports, public services, rural centers, commercial areas, residential areas, tourism accommodation, tourist center areas, and tourist attractions as well as away from landfills [8]. To avoid land use change due to rapid population growth and limited land in urban areas, it is necessary to plan the development of Lumpur Island as an eco-tourism area.

This development carried out as an effort to develop natural resources in Sidoarjo regency which must be optimally and sustainably based on the concept of natural resources development. The development of Lumpur Island area as an eco-tourism area is one of the alternatives in increasing economic growth around the area.

Tourism and fishery activities basically have different spatial allocations, so it will be a challenge if both designations can be done in an integrated ways for tourism development [9], and turns out eco-tourism as a solution. Ekominawisata (eco fishery tourism) is a tourism activity to enjoy the natural atmosphere of mangrove ecosystem and fish resources in it responsibly by participating in maintaining its sustainability [10].

The initial step of success of land use is the selection of the appropriate location as well as in line with the type or concentration of land exploration, thus potentially, it requires a study of land mapping. Mapping activities undertaken in a wide scope of territory such as mangrove ecosystems of Lumpur Island requires considerable time and cost, making them less effective. Along with technological developments, the existence of mangrove ecosystem of Lumpur Island can be mapped easily. Remote sensing system and aerial photography used by using drones. The advantages of this technology are the effectiveness and efficiency in terms of space and time and low cost.

Researchers agree with Rokhmana [11] to add some interesting characteristics in the use of multi-rotor drones DJI Phantom 3 Professional in general, namely (1) the relatively cheap cost, because the current market price is Rp. 17,000,000.- with 2 spare batteries; (2) to operate easily and more stably; (3) in accordance with geometric accuracy (sub-meter) (4) long travel, or around 20 minutes for one battery and can reach distance of 1 km; (5) has been widely supported both paid and free applications for mapping so that it can fly automatically on the desired mapping area, and (6) there is a ‘back to starting point’ flight feature if signal is lost between the drone and remote control.

Meanwhile, the multi-rotor drone DJI Phantom 3 Professional also has some disadvantages such as (1) if it used to map large areas (> 5000 ha), resulting in too much aerial photographs and battery usage; (2) It still needs some Ground Control Points (GCP) for accurate georeferencing; and (3) frequent loss of signal if done at too far distances and many covered locations of vegetation.

This study is aimed to 1) map the distribution and extent of mangrove ecosystems, 2) to analyze land use of Sidoarjo Lumpur Island as a reference in sustainable development of mud islands. A low-cost and human independent census technique developed by Rokhmana [11] and Ventura, et al [12] partially combining the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle platform (a small and low cost quadcopter) and specific human interventions to identify areas of interest in unexplored regions. We build the method to provide a way to acquire very fine spatial resolution imagery to map land use eco fishery tourism.


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